As a biological macromolecule in nucleus, the VDR gene has the effect of modulating the biological function of the major metabolites of vitamin D, which plays an important role in the formation of teeth, particularly in the calcification of enamel and dentin [ 89 ]. Vitamin D is pivotal to maintaining a stable relationship between phosphate and calcium ions, which are known as vital factors in protecting and strengthening the teeth.

A randomized trial have found that lack of vitamin D during pregnancy is associated with enamel dysplasia in children [ 10 ]. Further cohort study found that enamel dysplasia was associated with risk of dental caries [ 1112 ]. Vitamin D is not only involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphate levels, but also an important part of the immune system [ 13 ].

Vitamin D deficiency leads to uncontrolled changes in the immune system, which then blocks the correct immune response to oral microbial infections that occur during periodontitis or untreated caries [ 14 ]. We speculated that VDR polymorphisms might be a genetic factor for deciduous tooth decay.

Children were recruited from the five kindergartens and two primary schools of Liwan district in Guangzhou city. Inclusion criteria involved agreement to comply with the study visits and procedures. The exclusion criteria were according to published study performed by Antunes et al.

Deciduous tooth decay was diagnosed by visual examination and confirmed using a modified protocol recommended by World Health Organization [ 18 ]. The decayed, missing and filled teeth dmft index was used to assess deciduous tooth decay [ 19 ].

According to dmft, all individuals were separated into two groups based on caries experience. The results were indicated in the standardized checklist marked with a continuous reference number. Salivary tests conducted included information regarding bacteriological counts to quantify Mutans streptococci counts.

What is caries activity test

The process of polymerase chain reaction was referred to published study [ 21 ]. Data analysis was performed by the SPSS The binary logistic regression analysis was performed after adjusting by genotype, age and S. The deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was tested by standard Chi-square test.

In the present study, cases and controls can achieve a statistical power of 0. A total of children recruited in this study, The mean age was 5. A significant difference for factors like age and S. A binary logistic regression adjusted for genotypes, age and S. Dental caries is caused by a complex interaction between genetics and the environment [ 22 ].

Moreover, studies have found the link between dental caries and amelogenesis imperfecta. Some studies have clarified the genetic variation in AMELX linked with enamel formation contributed to caries susceptibility [ 3031 ]. Also, genetic variation in MMP and MMP was involved in increased caries risk during the enamel development [ 2832 ].

The VDR gene, identified as a candidate gene related to dental caries, mediated the biological function of the major metabolite of vitamin D, which was associated with enamel formation [ 89 ]. Vitamin D regulates the metabolism of calcium and promotes calcium depositing onto the enamel.

Purvis et al. However, the molecular mechanisms of deciduous tooth decay regulated by the VDR gene were not certain. Valdivielso et al. VDR protein mediated the biological function of Vitamin D, via interaction with the Vitamin D, which was associated with dental caries [ 91015 ]. These results were inconsistent with previous study performed by Hu et al. According to studies conducted by Bayram M et al. Thus, the inconsistency between our results and other reported study may be caused by difference between the primary and permanent dentitions.

Cogulu et al. The limitation of this study was that we only investigated the relationship between VDR polymorphisms and caries risk of children in Guangzhou, China; however, dental caries was caused by multiple genetic factors and environment.

The mechanism of the possible effect of VDR on susceptibility to dental caries remained unclear, further research in people with different ethnic backgrounds should be performed to reveal the mechanism of VDR gene in caries incidence, and clarify its interactions with other susceptibility genes and environmental factors. YY Kong wrote the first draft of the manuscript.

JM Zheng wrote the final draft of the manuscript. QZ Jiang contributed to obtaining the funding, and was responsible for experimental design, data collection and analysis.

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All authors critically reviewed the final draft of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. BMC Oral Health. Published online Jul Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Corresponding author. Received Nov 10; Accepted Jun This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Associated Data Data Availability Statement The data and materials of the present study were available from the corresponding author.

Keywords: Deciduous tooth decay, Vitamin D receptor, Gene polymorphisms. Results A total of children recruited in this study, Open in a separate window. Table 3 Binary logistic regression analysis adjusted for genotypes, age and S.

Discussion Dental caries is caused by a complex interaction between genetics and the environment [ 22 ]. Availability of data and materials The data and materials of the present study were available from the corresponding author.

Consent for publication Not applicable. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. References 1. Prevalence and measurement of dental caries in young children.

Pediatr Dent. Dental caries. Sheiham A.

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