Médecine générale Médecine interne Médecine légale Médecines complémentaires Neurologie, neuropsychologie Ophtalmologie Oto-rhino-laryngologie Pédiatrie Pharmacologie, Thérapeutique.

Biologie, Bactériologie, maladies infectieuses Cancérologie Cardiologie, Médecine vasculaire Chirurgie générale et digestive Chirurgie orthopédique, Traumatologie Chirurgie plastique Chirurgie, autres Dermatologie, Vénérologie Dictionnaires et lexiques. Endocrinologie, Nutrition, Métabolisme Examens de laboratoire Gastro-entérologie, Hépatologie Gériatrie Gynécologie, obstétrique, sage-femme Hématologie Imagerie médicale Immunologie clinique Médecine de rééducation Médecine du sport Regime tn explication du travail.

Aide-soignant e Anatomie Audioprothésiste Auxiliaire de puériculture. Cadre de santé Infirmier e Kinesitherapeuthe, Ostéopathe Orthophoniste. Orthoptiste Pédicure Podologue Psychomotricien. Journal of Infection. A prospective observational trial on treatment of aerococcal UTI was conducted. Tous droits réservés. The novel Group A Streptococcus antigen SpnA combined with bead-based immunoassay technology improves streptococcal serology for the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever Paulina Hanson-Manful, Alana L.

Whitcombe, Paul G. Young, Polly E. Mitchell, P. Déjà abonné à cette revue? Mon compte Créer un compte. Plateformes Elsevier Masson Site e-commerce : www.

Etudes clinques sur les infections pulmonaires de la personne adulte jeune et de tout âge confondu Author s Study desgin Patient population Type of infection Treatment groups n pat. Coli 21 3. Coli 7 ciproflox. Données supplémentaires du chapitre II. Norfloxacine 2 4 6. Annexes Annexe A. Form for selection of studies Selection criteria. Criteria for adequate randomization. Data Extraction Form for Included Studies 1. General description, objectives 2.

Methods: 3. Participants: 4. Composition of the trial population after randomization: 5. Outcomes: 6. Results: 7. By subgroup : 7. Notes Time finished extracting Concealment of allocation Was the assigned treatment adequately concealed prior to allocation? Clearly yes Some form of centralized randomization scheme, such as having to provide details of an enrolled participant to an office by phone to receive the treatment group allocation.

Some form of randomization scheme controlled by a pharmacy Numbered or coded containers, such as in a pharmaceutical trial in which capsules from identical-looking, numbered bottles are administered sequentially to enrolled participants An on-site computer system, given that the allocations are in a locked, unreadable file that can be accessed only after inputting the characteristics of an enrolled participant If assignment envelopes were used, the report should at least specify that they were sequentially numbered, sealed, and opaque Other combinations of described elements appear to provide assurance of adequate concealment B.

Unclear Assignment envelopes, without description of adequate safeguards Use of a "list" or "table" A trial in which the description suggests adequate concealment, but other features are suspicious - for example, markedly unequal controls and trial groups Stated random, but unable to obtain further details C.

Clearly no Alternation Case records numbers, dates of birth, day of the week, or any other such approach Any allocation procedure transparent before assignment, such as an open list of random numbers.

Quality assessment internal validity Result:. Annexe B. Pathologies infectieuses : Infection des voies respiratoires basses nosocomiale acquise à l'Hoger: le diagnostic d'infection des voies respiratoires basses est explicitement cité dans le dossier médical et le début de cette affection se situe au-delà de 48h après l'admission et ne constituait pas le motif d'hospitalisation. Infection des voies respiratoires basses nosocomiale acquise ailleurs: le diagnostic de broncho-pneumonie est explicitement cité dans le dossier médical, mais le début de l'affection a eu lieu dans un autre hôpital patient transféré.

Infection des voies respiratoires basses autre: le diagnostic de broncho-pneumonie est explicitement cité dans le dossier médical et il ne s'agit pas d'une infection nosocomiale. Infection urinaire UTI asymptomatique: les résultats d'une analyse d'urine indiquent la présence d'une UTI, mais le patient est asymptomatique. UTI non compliquée: l'infection urinaire est limitée aux voies urinaires basses; il n'y a pas de signes cliniques de pyélonéphrite ou de cylindres leucocytaires au sédiment urinaire, ni de pathologie obstructive associée, ni de sonde urinaire, ni de signe clinique de choc septique.

UTI compliquée: l'infection urinaire est associée à une obstruction des voies urinaires, à un reflux vésico-urétéral, à une azotémie ou survient chez un patient transplanté ou diabétique. UTI sur sonde: L'infection urinaire est survenue chez un patient porteur d'une sonde urinaire.

Infection nosocomiale: le début de cette affection se situe au-delà de 48h après l'admission et ne constituait pas le motif d'hospitalisation. Pyélonéphrite: signes cliniques de pyélonéphrite fièvre, frissons, douleur de la loge rénale ou présence de cylindres leucocytaires au sédiment urinaire. Peau: toute infection cutanée. Autre: toute autre infection à préciser. A cette fin, on a choisi 3 références, qui tiennent compte des habitudes différentes d'un pays à l'autre ainsi que des particularités de la personne âgée: Sanford JP et coll, Guide to antimicrobial therapy26th ed.

Questionnaire de pneumologie Dr J. Questionnaire de néphrologie Dr. Traitement cf. Annexe C. Annexe D. Utilisation des antibiotiques dans un hôpital universitaire de gériatrie et formulaires des médicaments. Schw Med Wochenschr ; Lutters M, Vogt N.

What's the basis for treating infections your way? Quality assessment of review articles on the treatment of urinary and respiratory tract infections in the elderly; JAGS ; Duration of antibiotics for treating uncomplicated symptomatic lower urinary tract infections in elderly women [protocole], The Cochrane Library Adverse drug reactions in the elderly: Are they avoidable? Results of a drug utilization study on antibiotic use in a geriatric hospital; soumis.

Do they all perform the same? Impact of treatment guidelines on the utilisation of antibiotics in a geriatric university hospital; soumis. A month experience in hospital based geriatric pharmacovigilance: Pattern of spontaneously régime minceur progressif ADRs; soumis. Role of the clinical pharmacologist in a geriatric hospital. Karger, Basel,pp Infection control. The Oxford Textbook of Geriatric Medicine. Communications Lutters M, Vogt N.

Evaluation des publicités pharmaceutiques dans deux revues médicales suisses destinées au praticien généraliste. Recommandations pour le traitement des infections urinaires et respiratoires chez la personne âgée - une évaluation critique des articles de revue. Critique des revues sur le traitement des infections urinaires et respiratoires du sujet âgé.

Prescription médicamenteuse chez la personne âgée à l'Hôpital de Gériatrie de Genève. Diagnosis and treatment of infections in a geriatric university hospital - a quality assessment study.

Impact des recommandations thérapeutiques dans un hôpital universitaire de gériatrie. Optimal antibiotic duration for treating uncomplicated, symptomatic lower urinary tract infections in elderly women.

A rajeunissement visage femme solution review. Références I. Evidence-based Medicine Working Group. Evidence-based medicine. A new approach to teaching the practice of medicine.

JAMA ; Graham-Smith D. Evidence based medicine: Socratic dissence. BMJ ; On the need for evidence-based medicine. Evidence-based Medicine ; 1: Médecine factuelle ou comment accomplir une nécessaire et profonde évolution dans la pratique médicale. Thérapie ; Bouvenot G. La médecine factuelle. Risk factors for hip fracture in white women.

N Engl J Med ; Information needs in office practice: are they being met? Ann Intern Med ; Systemic antibiotic use in nursing homes. A quality assessment. J Am Geriatr Soc ; 34 10 : Appropriateness of antibiotic therapy in long-term care facilities. Am J Med ; 83 3 : Appropriateness of medication prescribing for ambulatory elderly patients. J Am Geriatr Soc ; 42 12 : The impact of clinical pharmacists' consultations on physicians' geriatric prescribing.

A randomized controlled trial. Medical Care ; 30 7 : A computer-based monitoring system for folllow-up of elevated blood pressure. Med Care ; A comparison of results of meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials and recommandations of clinical experts. Lancet ; Changes over time in the knowledge base of practicing internists. Does a mailed continuing education program improve clinician performance? Results of a randomized trial in antihypertensive care.

Clinical determinants of the decision to treat primary hypertension. Clin Res ; A randomized trial of continuing medical education. A controlled trial of teaching critical appraisal of the clinical literature to medical students. Effect of problem-based, self-directed undergraduate education on life-long learning. Can Med Assoc J ; Warren KS ed. Coping with the biomedical literature.

A primer for the scientist and the clinician. Clinical Epidemiology, a basic science for clinical medicine. Little, Brown, Boston, How to get started. Soumerai SB. Factors Influencing Prescribing. Aust J Hosp Pharm ; 18 3, Suppl : Legrand M. Revue Prescrire ; 11 : Lee D, Bergman U.

Studies of drug utilization. Naylor CD. Grey zones of clinical practice: some limits to evidence-based medicine. The exclusion of the elderly and women from clinical trials in acute myocardial infarction. Representation of older patients in cancer treatment trials. Cancer ; Comorbidity of chronic diseases in general practice. J Clin Epidemiol ; Cochrane AL.

In: Medicines for the year London: Office of Health Economics,pp Jenicek M. Méta-analyse en Médecine. Evaluation et synthèse de l'information clinique et épidémiologique. Edisem inc. Boissel JP. Impact of clinical trials on medical practice. Mulrow D, Oxman AD eds. Cochrane Collaboration Handbook [updated September ]. The Cochrane Collaboration. Oxford: Update Software;issue 4. Juger de l'intérêt d'une nouvelle thérapeutique.

Rev Prat ; Gibaldi M, Sullivan S. Intention-to treat analysis in randomized trials: Who gets counted? J Clin Pharmacol ; Empirical Evidence of Bias. Dimensions of methodological quality associated with estimates of treatment effects in controlled trials.

JAMA ; 5 : Sackett D1, Gent M. Controversy in counting and attributing events in clinical trials. N Engl J Med Cucherat M. Méta-analyse des essais thérapeutiques. Masson, Paris, An assessment of clinically useful measures of the consequences of treatment. Nyman I. Larsson H, Wallentin L, and the research group on instability in coronary artery disease in Southeast Sweden. Prevention of serious cardiac events by low dose aspirin in patients with silent myocardial ischemia. Final report on the aspirin component of the ongoing physicians health study.

Publication bias and clinical trials. The Lancet ; Contr Clin Trials ; 8: Dickersin K. The existence of publication bias and risk factors for its occurence. Dickersin K, Yuan-I Min. NIH clinical trials and publication bias. Simes RJ. Publication bias: The equilibrer ses repas pour maigrir avis for an international registry of clinical trials.

J Clin Oncol ; 4: Mahoney MJ, Publication prejudices: an experimental study confirmatory bias in the peer review system. Cog Ther Res ; 1: Davidson RA. Source of funding and outcome of clinical trials.

J Gen Intern Med ; 1: Comparison and evaluation of nine bibliographic databases concerning adverse drug reactions. DICP ; 25 10 : Control Clin Trials 21 5 : Assessment of bibliographic databases performance in information retrieval for occupational and environmental toxicology. Occup Environ Med ; 55 8 : Evaluation of drug interaction document citation in nine on-line bibliographic databases. Ann Pharmacother ; 31 1 : An example with cross-over design. Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 81 6 : Performance of online biomedical databases in rheumatology.

J Rheumatol ; 21 19 : Burnham J, Shearer B. Med Ref Serv Q ; 12 3 : Searching the right database. A comparison of four databases for psychiatry journals.

Health Libr Rev ; 16 3 Identifying randomized controlled trials of cognitive therapy for depression: comparing the efficiency of Embase, Medline and PsycINFO bibliographic databases.

Br J Med Psychol ; 72 11 : Control Clin Trials ; 6 4 : J Prosthodont ; 9 1 : Handsearching in German paediatric journals. Identification of randomized controlled trials from emergency medicine literature: comparison of hand searching versus MEDLINE searching.

Ann Emerg Med ; 24 1 : creme anti rides ca marche bien Silagy C. Developing a register of randomised controlled trials in primary care. BMJ ; : Full publication of results initially represented in abstracts: a meta-analysis. Hopewell S, Clarke M. Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. Issue 1. Oxford: Update Software, Updated quaterly. Easterbrook PJ. Directory of registries of clinical trials. Statistics Med ; Mulrow CD.

The medical review article: State of the science. Rationale for systematic reviews. Gotzsche PG. Reference biais in reports of drug trials. Ravnskov U. Cholesterol lowering trials in coronary heart disease: frequency of citation and outcome. Br Med J ; Identifying relevant studies for systematic reviews. Zielinski C. New enquiries of information in an electronic age. Randomised trials in German-language journals. Language bias in randomised controlled trials published in English and German.

Completeness of reporting of trials published in languages other than English: implication for conduct and reporting of systematic reviews. Egger M, Smith GD. Bias in location and selection of studies. BMJ; Pignon JP, Poynard T.

Principes, méthodes et lecture critique. Rev Prat ; 43 18 : Glass GV. Primary, secondary and meta-analysis of research. Educational researcher ; 5: Leizorov A, Boissel JP. Oral anticoagulants in patients surviving myocardial infarction. A new approach to old data. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology ; Dickersin K, Berlin JA.

Meta-analysis: state of the science. Epidemiologic reviews ; Borzak S, Ridker PM. Discordance between meta-analyses and large-scale randomized controlled trials. Examples from the management of acute myocardial infarction. Blyth CR. On Simpson's paradox and the sure-thing principle.

J Am Statist Assoc ; Factors influencing prescribing. Aust J Hosp Pharm ; 18 3. Suppl : Effect of formulary restriction of cefotaxime usage. Arch Intern Med ; 6 : Seligman SJ. Reduction in antibiotic costs restricting use of an oral cephalosporin. Am J Med ; 71 6 : Usage of antibiotics in a general hospital: effect of requiring justification.

J Infect Dis ; 2 : Hospital use of antimicrobial drugs. Survey at 19 hospitals and results of antimicrobial control program. Ann Intern Med ; 89 5 Pt 2 Suppl : Payment restriction for prescription drugs under medicaid: effects on therapy, cost, and equity. Effect of restrictions on prescribing patterns for dextropropoxyphene. Brit Med J ; Use of antimicrobial agents in a university teaching hospital. Evolution of a comprehensive control program.

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Am J Public Health ; Reduction of incorrect antibiotic dosing through a structured educational order form. Arch Int Med ; 8 : A computerized system for identifying and informing physicians about problematic drug use in nursing homes. J Med Syst ; 16 6 : Soumerai SB, Avorn J Predictors of physician prescribing change in an educational experiment to improve medication use. Med Care ; 25 3 : Cost containment and changing physician' practice behavior: can the fox learn to guard the chicken coop?

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JAMA ; 19 : Information and education as determinants of antibiotic use: report of Task Force 5. Cost-effectiveness for prospective and continuous parenteral antibiotic control: experience at the Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Medical Center from to Am J Med ; 90 4 : Improving the quality for antibiotic prescription patterns in general practice. The role of educational intervention.

Med J Aust ; 8 ; The use of an antibiotic order form for antibiotic utilization review: Influence on physicians' prescribing patterns. J Inf Dis ; 6 : Changing surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis practice through education targeted at senior department leaders. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 11 11 : Decrease in expenditures and selected nosocomial infections following implementation of an antimicrobial-prescribing improvement Program. Clinical Performance and Quality Health Care ; 5: Educational antibiotic advertising.

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Moser CA, Kalton G. Survey methods on social investigation. Vol 2nd ed.

IV. Annexes

Aldershot, Gower, Improving physician performance through peer comparison feedback. Med Care22 6 : Influence of knowledge and attitudes on the quality of physicians' transfusion practice. Med Care ; 31 10 : Broclain D. Revue Prescrire ; 14 : Brook RH et coll.

A method for the detailed assessment of appropriateness of medical technologies. Eddy DM. Guidelines for policy statements: the explicit approach. JAMA ; 16 : Agency for Health Care Policy and Research clinical practice guidelines. Ann Pharmacotherapy ; Groupe d'étude canadien sur l'examen médical périodique. Guide canadien de médecine clinique et préventive. Effect of clinical guidelines on medical practice: a systematic review of rigorous evaluations.

Kanouse D et coll. An evaluation of the NIH consensus development program. Use of antibiotic agents in a large teaching hospital. The impact of Antibiotic Guidelines. Med J Austr ; 2 5 : Failure of a chest pain clinical policy to modify physician evaluation and management. Emerg Med ; Do practice guidelines guide practice?

JAMA19 : Lomas J. Words without action? The production, dissemination and impact of consensus recommandations. Anu Rev Publ Health ; Grol R. National standard setting for quality of care in general practice: attitudes of general practitioners and response to a set of local guidelines and their impact on process and outcome of care.

Br J Gen Pract ; Prevalence of infections and their risk factors in geriatric institutions: a one-day multicentre survey. Bulletin of the WHO ; McGee W. Causes of death in a hospitalised geriatric population: An autopsy study of patients.

Virchows Archiv A Pathol Anat ; Michel JP. Susceptibilité des personnes âgées aux infections. Méd Mal Infect ; Brachman PS. Epidemiology of nosocomial infections. Hospital Infections. Little Brown and Company, 3 rd edition, Boston, Prevalence of nosocomial infection in long-term-care Veterans Administration medical centers.

Am J Infect Control ; Goldrick B, Larson E. Assessment of infection control program in Maryland skilled-nursing long term care facilities.

Risk of nosocomial infection in elderly patients admitted to an university hospital. Med Clin ; Am J Med ; Gerontology ; Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; Nosocomial infections in elderly patients in the United States, National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance system.

Am J Med ; S. Nosocomial infections: decade-specific risk. Prolongation of hospital stay by nosocomial pneumonia and wound infection. Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; McGowan JE Jr. Antimicrobial resistance in hospital organisms and its relation to antibiotic use. Rev Inf Dis ; 5: Moreillon Ph. Résistance aux antibiotiques chez les bactéries à Gram positif. Communication faite à la réunion interactive romande d'infectiologie Péchère J-Cl.

L'émergence de la résistance bactérienne aux antibiotiques pendant les traitements. Médecine et Hygiène ; Mourouga Ph et Pittet D.

Staphylocoque doré résistant à la méticilline : un défi permanent. Auckenthaler R et Dubuis-Grieder Ch. Les staphylocoques méticilline résistants MRSA.

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Voss A et coll. Methicilline-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Europe. Réunion Interactive Romande d'Infectiologie du Hiramatsu K. The emergence of Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin in Japan.

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Positive correlation between the age of patients and the degree of antimicrobial resistance among urinary strains of Escherichia coli. J Infection ; International comparison of prevalence of resistance to antibiotics. Antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and hospital antibiotic policies.

Lancet ; 1: The effect of changes in the consumption of macrolide antibiotics on erythromycin resistance in group A streptococci in Finland.

Decline of erythromycin resistance of group A streptococci in Japan. Pediatr Infect Dis J ; Recovery of resistance factors from a drug-free community. Lancet ; 2: Persistence and dissemination in the community of R-factors of nosocomial origin. Borrego F, Gleckman R. Principles of Antibiotic Prescribing in the Elderly. Drugs Aging ; Nolan L, O'Malley K. JAGS ; Risk factors for adverse drug reactions - epidemiological approaches.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; Risk factors for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in a cohort of hospitalized patients. Antimicrobial agents and Clostridium difficile in acute enteric disease: epidemilogicla data from Sweden, Grand mal epileptic seizures during ciprofloxacin therapy [letter]. Winckler K. Tetracycline ulcers of the oesophagus: endoscopy, histology and roentgenology in two cases, and review of the literature.

Endoscopy ; Hepatitis associated with amoxycillin-clavulanic acid combination: report of 15 cases. Gut ; Trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole-associated blood dyscrasias: ten years experience of the Swedish spontanous reporting system. J Intern Med ; Rapport de la commission des agents anti-infectieux de la Société Suisse d'infectiologie. Consommation des antibiotiques dans les hôpitaux suisse.

Bull Med Suisse ; 3: Antibiotic use in a geriatric hospital: a ten year overview. Références II. Guidelines for reading literature reviews. CMAJ Oxman AD. Checklists for review articles.

Users' guides to the medical literature: IV. How to use an overview. Baldassarre Je veux maigrir vite du ventre rapidement, Kaye D. Special problems of urinary tract infection in the elderly. Med Clin North Am ; Rocco F, Franchini V. Antimicrobial therapy for treatment of UTI in the elderly.

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Geriatrics ; Gleckman AR. Urinary tract infection. Clin Geriatr Med ; 8: Nickel JC, Pidutti R. A rational approach to urinary tract infections in older patients. Geriatrics ; 47 10 : Managing prostatitis in the elderly.

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Littleton, Massachusetts: PSG; 1st edition Infections in elderly patients. London: Edward Arnold; 1st edition Warren JW Nosocomial urinary tract infections. Infections in the elderly. Boston, Toronto: Little, Brown and Company; 1st edition Gleckman RA. Respiratory disease in old age. Rev Clin Gerontol ; 6: Raju L, Khan F. Pneumonia in the elderly: A review. Geriatrics43 10 : Marrie TJ. Clin Geriatr Med8 4 : Nursing home-acquired pneumonia.

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Geriatrics ; 46 2 : Davies PDO. Tuberculosis in the elderly: Epidemiology and optimal management. Drugs Aging ; 8 6 : Heath JM. Outpatient management of chronic bronchitis in the elderly. Am Fam Physician ; 48 5 :