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However, the practical reality of Open Access for Southern researchers is often overstated. As Piron et al. This distinction is crucial to understand the difference in meaning of open access between the center and the periphery of the world-system of science, although only an awareness of the conditions of scientific research in the Southern countries makes it possible to visualize it, to perceive it.

This crucial difference between availability and accessibility has also been explained by Anne Powell on Scholarly Kitchen. The most obvious of these barriers is internet connectivity, but librarian training, language and digital literacy also feature significantly:. The catching up is fast, but many reflexes acquired since the primary school in the countries of the North must be developed before even being able to imagine that there are open access scientific texts on the web to make up for the lack of documents in the libraries.

Unfortunately, this is made even more difficult by resistance and misunderstanding of the internet and digital tools from senior leadership in Africa:.

These people infer that science in open access on the web is of lower quality than printed science and are very surprised when they learn that most of the journals of the world-system of science exist only in dematerialized format.

This project was many years in the making, and has involved training journal editors and librarians in loading online content and improving editorial practices for open access. The same, of course, could be said for African Journals Online, which has potential to facilitate sharing on a larger scale.

This reproduction is assured not by the old colonizers but by our own political leaders who are perpetuating a system structured according to a classical partitioning that slows down any possible communication between researchers within the country or with the outside world, even worse between the university and the immediate environment.

So what is the answer to all these problems? Is it in building the skills of researchers and institutions or a complete change of philosophy? Contextualization, particularly in the quasi-colonial structuring of sub-Saharan African universities Fredua-Kwarteng, and in maintaining the use of a colonial language in university education. For this to happen, open access must be about more than just access — but something much more holistic and equitable:. Our answer is clear: yes, provided that it is not limited to the question of access for scientific and non-scientific readers to scientific publications.

It must include the concern for origin, creation, local publishing and the desire to ensure equity between the accessibility of the publications of the center of the world system and that of knowledge from the periphery. The knowledge of these causes allowed me to propose ways to prevent our downfall. Among these means, I convened open science canal boat rides birmingham a tool available to our leaders and citizens for advancing cognitive justice.

For although the causes are endogenous and exogenous, I believe that a wound heals from the inside outwards. Mboa explains how open science approaches can overcome some of these problems in this book chapter, but here he provides a short summary of the advantages of open science for African research:.

From this perspective, open science offers the following advantages:. By aiming to benefit from these advantages, researchers and African students fight cognitive injustice. For this, open access science relies on open access, free licenses, free computing, and citizen science. But in order for open science to succeed, digital literacy must be rapidly improved to empower students and researchers in the South:.

In summary then, we need to rethink the way that the global North seeks to support the South — a realignment of this relationship from mere access to empowerment through sustainable capacity building:. These tools and skills would enable them not only to take advantage of open access databases, but also to digitize and put open access local scientific works in open archives, journals or research centers. Even if you disagree with many the above ideas, I hope that this has provided many of you with some food for thought.

Open Access must surely be about more than just knowledge flow from North to South or, for that matter the academy to the public, or well-funded researchers to poorly funded researchers. Those on the periphery must also be given a significant voice and a place at the table. For this to happen, many researchers and their equivalents outside academia need training and support in digital skills; some institutional barriers also need to be removed or overcome; and of course a few cherished, long-held ideas must be seriously challenged.

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Her monumental porcelain vessel is to be shown in the series Carlone Contemporary in which contemporary artworks are juxtaposed with the Baroque pictorial programme of the Carlone Hall. The universal subject of a sunset alludes to the harrowing experience of the suicide of a loved one. At the top edge, the artist introduces an alternative depiction of the universe: the theory, supported by a mathematical formula, that the universe is a hologram.

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Cette dernière avait porté plainte à la police de Laval une semaine avant sa mort, une plainte qui avait été jugée infondée. Il a été condamné mardi par le tribunal de Créteil pour avoir agressé sexuellement une jeune femme qui travaillait sous ses ordres. Léonie Piscator. Dans les faits, parfois, la police fait partie du problème.

In a growing number of cities where rideshare platforms operate, drivers are fed up with the low pay, long hours, and lack of basic worker protections that shlepping strangers around entails. In the U. Canadian drivers, however, took a more traditional route: signing union cards. First announced on Monday, Uber drivers based in Toronto expressed their intention to join the United Food and Commercial Workers, a ,strong trade union which operates in both Canada and the U.

What makes Ontario an interesting test bed is that by signing with UFCW, drivers are effectively shooting first and asking questions later—which may end up being the wiser tactic. The same business model that allows Uber to consider its drivers independent contractors rather than employees exists in Canada just as it does in the U.

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To find out more about UFCW and its ground-breaking work, visit www. Kanada Uber Gewerkschaft. Billions of years ago when the world was still young, treasure began forming deep underground. Over millions of years, those lattices grew into the most durable, dazzling gems the planet had ever cooked up.

There, the diamonds would remain, nestled in the kimberlite volcanoes that delivered them from their fiery home, until humans evolved, learned of their existence, and began to dig them up.

The arrival of lab-grown diamonds has rocked the jewelry world to its core and prompted fierce pushback from diamond miners. Claims abound on both sides. This is a fight over image, and when it comes to diamonds, image is everything. A variety of cut, polished Ada Diamonds created in a lab, including smaller melee stones and large center stones.

Image: Sam Cannon Earther Same, but different. The dream of lab-grown diamond dates back over a century. Inscience fiction author H. Others, including De Beers, soon developed their own methods for synthesizing the gems, and use of the lab-created diamond in industrial applications, from cutting tools to high power electronics, took off.

Yet by the early s, gem-quality stones were still small, and often tinted yellow with impurities.

It was only in the last five or so years that methods for growing diamonds advanced to the point that producers began churning out large, colorless stones consistently. Today, that sector is taking off.

This year, industry analyst Paul Zimnisky estimates they account for percent of the market. He expects that share will only continue to grow as factories in China that already produce millions of carats a year for industrial purposes start to see an opportunity in jewelry. Production ramp-up aside, saw some other major developments across the industry.

Inlab-grown diamond company MiaDonna announced its partners had grown a 6. Ina lab in Augsburg University, Germany that grows diamonds for industrial and scientific research applications produced what is thought to be the largest lab-grown diamond ever—a carat behemoth that stretches nearly 4 inches across.

Not gem quality, perhaps, but still impressive. We were very proud of this. Diamonds can be created in one of two ways: Similar to how they form inside the Earth, or similar to how scientists speculate they might form in outer space.

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The newer method, called chemical vapor deposition CVDis more akin to how diamonds might form in interstellar gas clouds for which we have indirect, spectroscopic evidence, according to Shigley.

A hydrocarbon gas, like methane, is pumped into a low-pressure reactor vessel alongside hydrogen. While maintaining near-vacuum conditions, the gases are heated very hot—typically 3, to 4, degrees Celsius, according to Lightbox CEO Steve Coe—causing carbon atoms to break free of their molecular bonds.

Under the right conditions, those liberated bits of carbon will settle out onto a substrate—typically a flat, square plate of a synthetic diamond produced with the HPHT method—forming layer upon layer of diamond. Scientists have been forging gem-quality diamonds with HPHT for longer, but today, CVD has become the method of choice for those selling larger bridal stones.

Still, each method has its advantages—Payne said that HPHT is faster and the diamonds typically have better color which is to say, less of it —and some companies, like Ada, purchase stones grown in both ways. Cut, they can dazzle with the same brilliance and fire—a technical term to describe how well the diamond scatters light like a prism.

The GIA even grades them according to the same 4Cs—cut, clarity, color, and carat—that gemologists use to assess diamonds formed in the Earth, although it uses a slightly different terminology to thé minceur puissant the color and clarity grades for lab-grown stones.

Those differences may be a lifeline for retailers hoping to weed out lab-grown diamonds, but for companies focused on them, they can become another selling point. The lack of nitrogen in diamonds produced with the CVD method, for instance, gives them an exceptional chemical purity that allows them to be classified as type IIa; a rare and coveted breed that accounts for just 2 percent of those found in nature. Meanwhile, the ability to control everything about the growth process allows companies like Lightbox to adjust the formula and produce incredibly rare blue and pink diamonds as part of their standard product line.

And while lab-grown diamonds boast the same sparkle as their Earthly counterparts, they do so at a significant discount. Two years ago, that discount was only 18 percent. Zimnisky said that if the price falls too fast, it could devalue lab-grown diamonds in the eyes of consumers. But for now, at least, paying less seems to be a selling point. A consumer research survey liposuccion en olavarria MVI Marketing found that most of those polled would choose a larger lab-grown diamond over a smaller mined diamond of the same price.

Still, for buyers and sellers alike, price is only part of the story. Many in the lab-grown diamond world market their product as an ethical or eco-friendly alternative to mined diamonds. A variety of lab-grown diamond products arrayed on a desk at Ada Diamonds showroom in Manhattan. The stone in the upper left gets its blue color from boron. Diamonds tinted yellow top center usually get their color from small amounts of nitrogen.

Photo: Sam Cannon Earther Dazzling promises. She did it to try and fix a mistake. InAnderson purchased herself a diamond. Some years later, inher father asked her where it came from. Nonplussed, she told him it came from the jewelry store. That research eventually led Anderson to conclude that she had likely bought a diamond mined under horrific conditions. To try and set things right, Anderson began sponsoring a boy living in a Liberian community impacted by the blood diamond trade.

The experience was so eye-opening, she says, that she eventually felt compelled to sponsor more children. Brilliant Earth, which sells what it says are carefully-sourced mined and lab-created diamonds, also donates a small portion of its profits to supporting mining communities. Others, however, say black-and-white characterizations when it comes to social impact of mined diamonds versus lab-grown stones are unfair. And ethics are subjective.

Saleem Ali, an environmental researcher at the University of Delaware who serves on the board of the Diamonds and Development Initiative, agrees. Most industry observers seems to agree that the Kimberley Process is outdated and inadequate, and that more work is needed to stamp out other abuses, including child labor and forced labor, in the artisanal and small-scale diamond mining sector.

The flip side, Ali and Levin-Nally say, is that well-regulated mining operations can be an important source of economic development and livelihood. In the case of large-scale commercial mines, this typically entails using heavy machinery and explosives to bore deep into those kimberlite tubes in search of precious stones. While the new report states that about 40 percent of the emissions associated with mining a diamond come from fossil fuel-powered vehicles and equipment, emissions associated with growing a diamond come mainly from electric power.

Today, about 68 percent of lab-grown diamonds hail from China, Singapore, and India combined according to Zimnisky, where the power is drawn from largely fossil fuel-powered grids. But there is, at least, an opportunity to switch to renewables and drive that carbon footprint way down. And some companies do seem to be trying to do that. Anderson of MiaDonna says the company only sources its diamonds from facilities in the U.

The company offsets other fossil fuel-driven parts of its operation by purchasing carbon credits. Coe said he estimates about 45 percent of its power will come from renewable sources.

Photo: Sam Cannon Earther The real real. On March 26, the FTC sent letters to eight lab-grown and diamond simulant companies warning them against making unsubstantiated assertions about the environmental benefits of their products—its first real enforcement action after updating its jewelry guides last year.

The letters, first obtained by JCK news director Rob Bates under a Freedom of Information Act request, also warned companies that their advertising could falsely imply the products are mined diamonds, illustrating that, even though the agency now says a lab-grown diamond is a diamond, the specific origin remains critically important. They are a type of diamond. Change is afoot in the diamond world.

At that point, he wonders whether lab-grown diamonds will start to lose their sparkle. He points out that lab-grown diamond market is still limited by supply, and that the largest lab-grown gems remain quite rare.

Payne and Zimnisky both see the lab-grown diamond market bifurcating into cheaper, mass-produced gems and premium-quality stones sold by those that can maintain a strong brand.

Some will only ever see diamonds as authentic if they formed inside the Earth. To an essence more than a function. Others, like Anderson, see lab-grown diamonds as the natural to use a loaded word evolution of diamond. Mined diamonds will never go away. But most major mines are being exhausted. Still, those holes can be enormous.

Diamonds grown in factories clearly have a smaller physical footprint. Of course, this is capitalism, so try to compete is exactly what the DPA is now doing. Growing diamonds does take considerable energy. The exact amount can vary greatly, however, depending on the specific nature of the growth process. These are details manufacturers are typically loathe to disclose, but Payne of Ada Diamonds says he estimates the most efficient players in the game today use about kilowatt hour kWh of electricity per cut, polished carat of diamond; roughly what a U.

Other estimates run higher. Using information provided by mining companies on fuel and electricity consumption, along with other greenhouse gas sources on the mine site, it found that the average mined carat was responsible for just kg of carbon emissions. One limitation here is that the carbon footprint estimate for mining focused only on diamond production, not the years of work entailed in developing a mine.

As Ali noted, developing a mine can take a lot of energy, particularly for those sited in remote locales where equipment needs to be hauled long distances by trucks or aircraft. Libre-échange ou écologie! Emmanuel Macron de plusieurs anciens dirigeants écologistes MM.

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